The density property of real numbers says that between two real numbers there is always an another real number. For example, 1.22 lies between the two real numbers 1.2 and 1.3. In this post, we will state and prove this density property of real numbers.

Table of Contents

## Statement of Density Property of Real Numbers

Between any two real numbers, there always exists another real number.

## Proof of Density Property of Real Numbers

To prove the density property of real numbers, we need to show the following two facts:

- Let x and y be two real numbers with x < y. Then ∃ a real number r such that x < r < y.
- For two real numbers x and y with x < y, ∃ an irrational number r such that x < y < r.

Proof of 1: |

As y-x > 0, by the Archimedean property of real numbers, ∃ n ∈ ℕ such that

0 < $\dfrac{1}{n}$ < y-x.

⇒ ny-nx > 1

⇒ nx+1 < ny …(I)

As nx is a positive real number, by this property ∃ an integer m such that

m-1 ≤ nx < m …(II)

⇒ nx+1 ≥ m.

Thus, using (I) we obtain that m ≤ nx+1 < ny. On the other hand, from (II) we have that nx < m. This reduces that

nx < m < ny

⇒ x < m/n < y.

Observe that m/n is a rational number as m is an integer and n is a natural number. Now taking r=m/n, we complete the proof of the first part.

Proof of 2: |

For the second part, note that we claim that √2x and √2y are real numbers. We claim that √2x < √2y.

So by the first part above, ∃ a rational number s such that √2x < s < √2y. This s can be taken non-zero without loss of generality. Now,

x < s/√2 < y.

Take r=s/√2. Then s is an irrational number and x < r < y. This proves the second part.

Combining the above two parts, we deduce that there always exists a real number between any two real numbers. This is the density property of real numbers.

See Also

- Completeness Axiom of Real Numbers
- Supremum & Infimum of a Set
- Archimedean Property
- Density property of Rational Numbers

## FAQs

**Q1:**

**State the density property of real numbers.**Answer: The density property of R (set of real numbers) states that between any two real numbers, there always exist infinitely many real numbers.

This article is written by Dr. T. Mandal, Ph.D in Mathematics. On Mathstoon.com you will find Maths from very basic level to advanced level. Thanks for visiting.