If you are looking for math symbols, then you are in right place. Here you will find all the mathematical symbols in one place.

Table of Contents

**Basic Math Symbols**

The following are the few common math symbols. These symbols are used very often in mathematics.

Symbols |
Symbol name / Meaning |
Examples |

+ | Plus / positive sign. | 2+5=7 |

– | Minus / negative sign. | 10-5=5 |

× | Multiplication | 2×3=6 |

. |
Multiplication | 2.3=6 |

÷ | Division | 12÷3=4 |

± | Plus-Minus | 5±2 = 7 or 3 |

$\mp$ | Minus-Plus | 5 $\mp$ 2 = 3 or 7 |

= | Equal | 3+4=7 |

≠ | Not equal | 4≠5 |

> | Greater than | 7>5 |

< | Less than | 5<7 |

≥ |
Greater than or equal to | 2≥2, 5≥2 |

≤ |
Less than or equal to | 2≤2, 2≤5 |

≈ |
Approximate to | π ≈ 3.14 |

∝ | Proportion to | y∝x means y=kx for some constant k. |

% | Percentage | 10% = 10/100 |

( ) | Parentheses | 2×(1+2)=2×3=6 |

[ ] | Square brackets | |

{ } | Curly brackets | |

a^{b} |
Power / Exponent | 2^{3} = 2×2×2 =8 |

√ |
Square root | √4=2 |

$\sqrt[3]{}$ | Cube root | $\sqrt[3]{8}=8$ |

$\sqrt[4]{}$ | Fourth root | $\sqrt[4]{16}=2$ |

$\sqrt[n]{}$ | n-th root | $\sqrt[n]{2^n}=2$ |

**Algebra Symbols**

Symbols |
Symbols name / Meaning |
Examples |

≡ | Equivalent / Congruent | a≡b (mod n) implies that n divides a-b.
8≡2 (mod 3) |

$x$ | variable $x$ | Solve 2x+7=0 |

|x| | mod x | |2|=2, |-2|=2 |

⌊x⌋ | floor function. Floor of x is the nearest integer ≤ x | ⌊2.3⌋= 2 |

⌈x⌉ | ceiling function. Ceiling of x is the nearest integer ≥ x | ⌈2.3⌉ = 3 |

f(x): R →R | function of x | f: R→R defined by f(x)=2x+1 |

f $\circ$ g | composition of functions | f(x)=2x, g(x)=x^{2}
(f$\circ$g)(x)=f(g(x))=f(x |

f: R↪R | f is an injective function | f: R↪R by f(x)=x
The identity function is injective |

f: R↠R | f is a surjective function | The identity function is surjective |

(a, b) | open interval | (a, b)={x : a<x<b} |

[a, b] | closed interval | [a, b]={x: a≤x≤b} |

(a, b] | left open right closed interval | (a, b]={x: a<x≤b} |

[a, b) | left closed right open interval | [a, b)={x: a≤x<b} |

**Linear Algebra Symbols**

Symbols |
Symbols name / Meaning |
Examples |

· |
dot product | a · b |

× | scalar product | a × b |

〈x, y〉 | inner product | |

||x|| | norm of the vector x | |

A⊗B | tensor product | |

A⊕B | direct sum | |

A | matrix A | |

I | identity matrix | |

det(A) or |A| | determinant of A | |

AB | the product of two matrices A and B | |

A+B | sum of two matrices A and B | |

A-B | difference of two matrices A and B | |

rank(A) | rank of the matrix A | |

dim | dimension | |

A^{T} |
transpose of the matrix A | |

A^{-1} |
inverse of the matrix A | A A^{-1 }= I |

A^{†} |
Hermitian matrix | |

ker(A) | kernel of the matrix A | |

null(A) | null space of the matrix A | |

Img | Image |

**Geometry Symbols**

Symbols |
Symbols name / Meaning |
Examples |

° |
Degree | 90° |

∠ | Angle | ∠ABC=60° |

Δ | Triangle | Triangle ABC = ΔABC |

~ |
Similar triangles | ΔABC ∼ ΔXYZ |

∟ | Right angle | This mean 90° |

rad | Radian | 180° = π rad |

$\overline{AB}$ | line joining A and B | |

|| | Parallel lines | $\overline{AB}$ || $\overline{CD}$ |

**Calculus Symbols**

Symbols |
Symbols name / Meaning |
Examples |

lim_{x→a} |
limit x tends to a | lim_{x→1}2x = 2.1 =2 |

$\dfrac{d}{dx}$ | derivative | |

$\dfrac{d}{dx}(f(x))$ | derivative of f(x) | $\dfrac{d}{dx}(\sin x)=\cos x$ |

$y’$ | first derivative of y | $x’=1$ |

$y’$$’$ | second derivative of y | $(\sin x)’$$’$ $=(\cos x)’$ $=-\sin x$ |

y^{(n)} |
n-th derivative of y | |

$\dfrac{dy}{dx}$ | derivative of y | If y=x^{2}, then $\dfrac{dy}{dx}=2x$ |

$\dfrac{d^2y}{dx^2}$ | 2nd derivative of y | If y=x^{2}, then $\dfrac{d^2y}{dx^2}=2$ |

$\dfrac{d^ny}{dx^n}$ | n-th derivative of y | |

∫ | integration | |

∫f(x) dx |
integration of f(x) | ∫x dx = x^{2}/2 |

∫∫ |
double integration | ∫∫f(x,y) dxdy |

∫∫∫ | triple integration | ∫∫∫f(x,y,z) dxdydz |

∮ |
closed line integral / contour integral | |

∯ | closed surface integral | |

∰ | closed volume integral |

This article is written by Dr. T. Mandal, Ph.D in Mathematics. On Mathstoon.com you will find Maths from very basic level to advanced level. Thanks for visiting.