Mathematical Symbols | List of Math Symbols

If you are looking for math symbols, then you are in right place. Here you will find all the mathematical symbols in one place.

Basic Math Symbols

The following are the few common math symbols. These symbols are used very often in mathematics.

Symbols Symbol name / Meaning Examples
+ Plus / positive sign. 2+5=7
Minus / negative sign. 10-5=5
× Multiplication 2×3=6
. Multiplication 2.3=6
÷ Division 12÷3=4
± Plus-Minus 5±2 = 7 or 3
$\mp$ Minus-Plus 5 $\mp$ 2 = 3 or 7
= Equal 3+4=7
Not equal 4≠5
> Greater than 7>5
< Less than 5<7

Greater than or equal to 2≥2,  5≥2

Less than or equal to 2≤2,  2≤5

Approximate to π ≈ 3.14
Proportion to yx means y=kx for some constant k.
% Percentage  10% = 10/100
( ) Parentheses 2×(1+2)=2×3=6
[ ] Square brackets  
{ } Curly brackets  
ab Power / Exponent 23 = 2×2×2 =8
Square root √4=2
$\sqrt[3]{}$ Cube root $\sqrt[3]{8}=8$
$\sqrt[4]{}$ Fourth root $\sqrt[4]{16}=2$
$\sqrt[n]{}$ n-th root $\sqrt[n]{2^n}=2$


Algebra Symbols

Symbols Symbols name / Meaning Examples
Equivalent / Congruent a≡b (mod n) implies that n divides a-b.

8≡2 (mod 3)

$x$ variable $x$ Solve 2x+7=0
|x| mod x |2|=2, |-2|=2
⌊x⌋ floor function. Floor of x is the nearest integer ≤ x ⌊2.3⌋= 2
⌈x⌉ ceiling function. Ceiling of x is the nearest integer ≥ x ⌈2.3⌉ = 3
f(x): R →R function of x f: R→R defined by f(x)=2x+1
f $\circ$ g composition of functions f(x)=2x, g(x)=x2


f: R↪R f is an injective function f: R↪R by f(x)=x

The identity function is injective

f: R↠R f is a surjective function The identity function is surjective
(a, b) open interval (a, b)={x : a<x<b}
[a, b] closed interval [a, b]={x: a≤x≤b}
(a, b] left open right closed interval (a, b]={x: a<x≤b}
[a, b) left closed right open interval [a, b)={x: a≤x<b}


Linear Algebra Symbols

Symbols Symbols name / Meaning Examples
· dot product a · b
× scalar product a × b
〈x, y〉 inner product
||x|| norm of the vector x
A⊗B tensor product
A⊕B direct sum
A matrix A
I identity matrix
det(A) or |A| determinant of A
AB the product of two matrices A and B
A+B sum of two matrices A and B
A-B difference of two matrices A and B
rank(A) rank of the matrix A
dim dimension
AT transpose of the matrix A
A-1 inverse of the matrix A A A-1 = I
A Hermitian matrix
ker(A) kernel of the matrix A
null(A) null space of the matrix A
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Geometry Symbols

Symbols Symbols name / Meaning Examples
Degree 90°
Angle ∠ABC=60°
Δ Triangle Triangle ABC = ΔABC
Similar triangles ΔABC ∼ ΔXYZ
Right angle This mean 90°
rad Radian 180° = π rad
$\overline{AB}$ line joining A and B
|| Parallel lines $\overline{AB}$ || $\overline{CD}$


Calculus Symbols

Symbols Symbols name / Meaning Examples
limx→a limit x tends to a limx→12x = 2.1 =2
$\dfrac{d}{dx}$ derivative
$\dfrac{d}{dx}(f(x))$ derivative of f(x) $\dfrac{d}{dx}(\sin x)=\cos x$
$y’$ first derivative of y $x’=1$
$y’$$’$ second derivative of y $(\sin x)’$$’$ $=(\cos x)’$ $=-\sin x$
y(n) n-th derivative of y
$\dfrac{dy}{dx}$ derivative of y If y=x2, then $\dfrac{dy}{dx}=2x$
$\dfrac{d^2y}{dx^2}$ 2nd derivative of y If y=x2, then $\dfrac{d^2y}{dx^2}=2$
$\dfrac{d^ny}{dx^n}$ n-th derivative of y
∫f(x) dx
integration of f(x) ∫x dx = x2/2
double integration ∫∫f(x,y) dxdy
∫∫∫ triple integration ∫∫∫f(x,y,z) dxdydz

closed line integral / contour integral
closed surface integral
closed volume integral



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