# Mathematical Symbols | List of Math Symbols

If you are looking for math symbols, then you are in right place. Here you will find all the mathematical symbols in one place.

#### Basic Math Symbols

The following are the few common math symbols. These symbols are used very often in mathematics.

 Symbols Symbol name / Meaning Examples + Plus / positive sign. 2+5=7 – Minus / negative sign. 10-5=5 × Multiplication 2×3=6 . Multiplication 2.3=6 ÷ Division 12÷3=4 ± Plus-Minus 5±2 = 7 or 3 $\mp$ Minus-Plus 5 $\mp$ 2 = 3 or 7 = Equal 3+4=7 ≠ Not equal 4≠5 > Greater than 7>5 < Less than 5<7 ≥ Greater than or equal to 2≥2,  5≥2 ≤ Less than or equal to 2≤2,  2≤5 ≈ Approximate to π ≈ 3.14 ∝ Proportion to y∝x means y=kx for some constant k. % Percentage 10% = 10/100 ( ) Parentheses 2×(1+2)=2×3=6 [ ] Square brackets { } Curly brackets ab Power / Exponent 23 = 2×2×2 =8 √ Square root √4=2 $\sqrt{}$ Cube root $\sqrt{8}=8$ $\sqrt{}$ Fourth root $\sqrt{16}=2$ $\sqrt[n]{}$ n-th root $\sqrt[n]{2^n}=2$

#### Algebra Symbols

 Symbols Symbols name / Meaning Examples ≡ Equivalent / Congruent a≡b (mod n) implies that n divides a-b. 8≡2 (mod 3) $x$ variable $x$ Solve 2x+7=0 |x| mod x |2|=2, |-2|=2 ⌊x⌋ floor function. Floor of x is the nearest integer ≤ x ⌊2.3⌋= 2 ⌈x⌉ ceiling function. Ceiling of x is the nearest integer ≥ x ⌈2.3⌉ = 3 f(x): R →R function of x f: R→R defined by f(x)=2x+1 f $\circ$ g composition of functions f(x)=2x, g(x)=x2 (f$\circ$g)(x)=f(g(x))=f(x2)=2x2 f: R↪R f is an injective function f: R↪R by f(x)=x The identity function is injective f: R↠R f is a surjective function The identity function is surjective (a, b) open interval (a, b)={x : a

#### Linear Algebra Symbols

 Symbols Symbols name / Meaning Examples · dot product a · b × scalar product a × b 〈x, y〉 inner product ||x|| norm of the vector x A⊗B tensor product A⊕B direct sum A matrix A I identity matrix det(A) or |A| determinant of A AB the product of two matrices A and B A+B sum of two matrices A and B A-B difference of two matrices A and B rank(A) rank of the matrix A dim dimension AT transpose of the matrix A A-1 inverse of the matrix A A A-1 = I A† Hermitian matrix ker(A) kernel of the matrix A null(A) null space of the matrix A Img Image

#### Geometry Symbols

 Symbols Symbols name / Meaning Examples ° Degree 90° ∠ Angle ∠ABC=60° Δ Triangle Triangle ABC = ΔABC ~ Similar triangles ΔABC ∼ ΔXYZ ∟ Right angle This mean 90° rad Radian 180° = π rad $\overline{AB}$ line joining A and B || Parallel lines $\overline{AB}$ || $\overline{CD}$

#### Calculus Symbols

 Symbols Symbols name / Meaning Examples limx→a limit x tends to a limx→12x = 2.1 =2 $\dfrac{d}{dx}$ derivative $\dfrac{d}{dx}(f(x))$ derivative of f(x) $\dfrac{d}{dx}(\sin x)=\cos x$ $y’$ first derivative of y $x’=1$ $y’$$’ second derivative of y (\sin x)’$$’$ $=(\cos x)’$ $=-\sin x$ y(n) n-th derivative of y $\dfrac{dy}{dx}$ derivative of y If y=x2, then $\dfrac{dy}{dx}=2x$ $\dfrac{d^2y}{dx^2}$ 2nd derivative of y If y=x2, then $\dfrac{d^2y}{dx^2}=2$ $\dfrac{d^ny}{dx^n}$ n-th derivative of y ∫ integration ∫f(x) dx integration of f(x) ∫x dx = x2/2 ∫∫ double integration ∫∫f(x,y) dxdy ∫∫∫ triple integration ∫∫∫f(x,y,z) dxdydz ∮ closed line integral / contour integral ∯ closed surface integral ∰ closed volume integral