Mathematical Symbols | List of Math Symbols

If you are looking for math symbols, then you are in right place. Here you will find all the mathematical symbols in one place.

Basic Math Symbols

The following are the few common math symbols. These symbols are used very often in mathematics.

 Symbols Symbol name / Meaning Examples + Plus / positive sign. 2+5=7 – Minus / negative sign. 10-5=5 × Multiplication 2×3=6 . Multiplication 2.3=6 ÷ Division 12÷3=4 ± Plus-Minus 5±2 = 7 or 3 $\mp$ Minus-Plus 5 $\mp$ 2 = 3 or 7 = Equal 3+4=7 ≠ Not equal 4≠5 > Greater than 7>5 < Less than 5<7 ≥ Greater than or equal to 2≥2,  5≥2 ≤ Less than or equal to 2≤2,  2≤5 ≈ Approximate to π ≈ 3.14 ∝ Proportion to y∝x means y=kx for some constant k. % Percentage 10% = 10/100 ( ) Parentheses 2×(1+2)=2×3=6 [ ] Square brackets { } Curly brackets ab Power / Exponent 23 = 2×2×2 =8 √ Square root √4=2 $\sqrt[3]{}$ Cube root $\sqrt[3]{8}=8$ $\sqrt[4]{}$ Fourth root $\sqrt[4]{16}=2$ $\sqrt[n]{}$ n-th root $\sqrt[n]{2^n}=2$

Algebra Symbols

 Symbols Symbols name / Meaning Examples ≡ Equivalent / Congruent a≡b (mod n) implies that n divides a-b. 8≡2 (mod 3) $x$ variable $x$ Solve 2x+7=0 |x| mod x |2|=2, |-2|=2 ⌊x⌋ floor function. Floor of x is the nearest integer ≤ x ⌊2.3⌋= 2 ⌈x⌉ ceiling function. Ceiling of x is the nearest integer ≥ x ⌈2.3⌉ = 3 f(x): R →R function of x f: R→R defined by f(x)=2x+1 f $\circ$ g composition of functions f(x)=2x, g(x)=x2 (f$\circ$g)(x)=f(g(x))=f(x2)=2x2 f: R↪R f is an injective function f: R↪R by f(x)=x The identity function is injective f: R↠R f is a surjective function The identity function is surjective (a, b) open interval (a, b)={x : a

Linear Algebra Symbols

 Symbols Symbols name / Meaning Examples · dot product a · b × scalar product a × b 〈x, y〉 inner product ||x|| norm of the vector x A⊗B tensor product A⊕B direct sum A matrix A I identity matrix det(A) or |A| determinant of A AB the product of two matrices A and B A+B sum of two matrices A and B A-B difference of two matrices A and B rank(A) rank of the matrix A dim dimension AT transpose of the matrix A A-1 inverse of the matrix A A A-1 = I A† Hermitian matrix ker(A) kernel of the matrix A null(A) null space of the matrix A Img Image

Geometry Symbols

 Symbols Symbols name / Meaning Examples ° Degree 90° ∠ Angle ∠ABC=60° Δ Triangle Triangle ABC = ΔABC ~ Similar triangles ΔABC ∼ ΔXYZ ∟ Right angle This mean 90° rad Radian 180° = π rad $\overline{AB}$ line joining A and B || Parallel lines $\overline{AB}$ || $\overline{CD}$

Calculus Symbols

 Symbols Symbols name / Meaning Examples limx→a limit x tends to a limx→12x = 2.1 =2 $\dfrac{d}{dx}$ derivative $\dfrac{d}{dx}(f(x))$ derivative of f(x) $\dfrac{d}{dx}(\sin x)=\cos x$ $y’$ first derivative of y $x’=1$ $y’$$’ second derivative of y (\sin x)’$$’$ $=(\cos x)’$ $=-\sin x$ y(n) n-th derivative of y $\dfrac{dy}{dx}$ derivative of y If y=x2, then $\dfrac{dy}{dx}=2x$ $\dfrac{d^2y}{dx^2}$ 2nd derivative of y If y=x2, then $\dfrac{d^2y}{dx^2}=2$ $\dfrac{d^ny}{dx^n}$ n-th derivative of y ∫ integration ∫f(x) dx integration of f(x) ∫x dx = x2/2 ∫∫ double integration ∫∫f(x,y) dxdy ∫∫∫ triple integration ∫∫∫f(x,y,z) dxdydz ∮ closed line integral / contour integral ∯ closed surface integral ∰ closed volume integral