Subgroup of any group always exists. If the group is cyclic, then its subgroup is also cyclic. In this article, we prove that each subgroup of a cyclic group is also cyclic.

Let us first understand what are subgroups and cyclic groups.

**What are groups and subgroups?**

A set G forms a group with respect to the binary operation ∗, denoted by (G, ∗), if it satisfies the following properties.

- ∗ is closed, that is, a∗b ∈ G ∀ a, b ∈ G.
- ∗ is associative on G, i.e., (a∗b)∗c = a∗(b∗c) ∀ a, b, c ∈ G.
- The identity element exists, that is, there exists an element e in G such that a∗e = e∗a = a ∀ a ∈ G.
- For any a ∈ G, ∃ a
^{-1}∈ G such that a∗a^{-1}= a^{-1}∗a = e.

If a subset H of G forms a group under the operation ∗, then the pair (H, ∗) is called a subgroup of (G, ∗).

**Cyclic Groups:**

A group G is called a cyclic group, if all of its elements can be expressed as a^{n} for some fixed a ∈ G and integer n. The element a is called a generator of the group and it is written as follows: G = <a>.

Note that the order of a in G is equal to the cardinality of the group G.

Table of Contents

## Prove that every subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic

**Proof:**

Let G be a cyclic group generated by a, that is, G = <a>. Let H be a subgroup of G. We need to prove that H is a cyclic group.

If H=G, then H is cyclic.

So assume that H ≠ G.

**Case 1:** Let H = {e} be trivial group where e is the identity element. As e^{n }= e, for all integers n, the group H is cyclic.

**Case 2:** Let H ≠ {e} be a proper subgroup of G.

Consider an element x in H other than e.

As x ∈ G, we have x=a^{k} for some non-zero k ∈ ℤ. Now since H is a subgroup, x^{-1} = a^{-k} ∈ H. So we obtain thata ^{k}, a^{-k} ∈ H for some integer k ≠ 0. |

Thus H contains some positive integral powers of a. Let m be the least positive integer such that a^{m} ∈ H. The existence of such an integer by the well ordering property of natural numbers.

We claim that H = <a^{m}>.

Let h ∈ H.

Then h = a^{s} for some integer s.

By the division algorithm of integers, there exist integers q and r such that s = qm+r with 0 ≤ r < m.

Note a^{m} ∈ H ⇒ a^{-qm} ∈ H, because H is a subgroup.

Also, a^{s} ∈ H.

Combining, we deduce that a^{s-qm} ∈ H

⇒ a^{r} ∈ H as s = qm+r.

Now since 0 ≤ r < m, this contradicts that m is the least positive integer such that a^{m} ∈ H. So r must be 0. This implies that

a^{s} = a^{qm} = <a^{m}>.

As x is an arbitrary element, and it is expressed as an integral power of a^{m}, we conclude that H is generated by a^{m}, that is, H = <a^{m}>. This proves that H is cyclic.

So each subgroup of a cyclic group is also cyclic.

**Related Concept:** Cyclic Group

Group of Prime Order is Cyclic: Proof

Abelian Group | Quotient Group

Normal Subgroup | Simple Group

## FAQs

**Each subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic, true or false?**

Answer: Yes, every subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic.